XIII. FOR TO MAKE BLANCHE BREWET DE ALYNGYN.

Nym kedys [1] and chekenys and hew hem in morsellys and seth hem in almand mylk or in kyne mylke grynd gyngyner galingale and cast therto and boyle it and serve it forthe.

Cut kid meat and chickens, and hew them into morsels, and seethe them in almond milk or in cattle milk.

Grind ginger and galangale, and cast thereto, and boil it and serve it forthwith.
We had an interesting gift recently. Someone very generously gave us some old laying chickens.. These birds were somewhere over three years old. I have fed them and collected their eggs. They were well cared for, and they earned their keep.

IMG_4982

I also had a lovely goat neck from a local farm.  This sounded like a perfect assemblage.

IMG_4983

Old chickens are not what we are accustomed to in the way of texture.. They have incredible chicken flavor, but there is nothing approaching tenderness about them.

Goat necks, no matter the age, are also challenging. They are hard to bone, have little meat, and are also quite the opposite of tender.

The only way I could reasonably deal with these items was to cook them whole, then bone them, then make the dish.

 

I poached the chicken and the neck together, in almond milk with galangale and ginger, for about an hour on a low temperature, with the lid on.

IMG_4990

After poaching, I allowed the pot to cool and put the whole thing in the fridge overnight. I wanted to carve the meat with care, and to waste none of it.

The chicken meat was very easy to remove from the bones, it lifted off cleanly, almost like a toy model.

The goat neck required some technique to carve neatly, but offered no fuss. The main thing to keep in mind that there are four sections of meat. If the knife follows the bone closely, there are two main tendons which must be seen to. If the meat is home butchered, make certain that things are visually tidy, as not all hunters are comfortable packaging neck roasts.

Once the meat was off of the bone, I cubed it into approximately 1″ cubes,

I placed all of the meat in a sautee pan with about two cups of almond milk. I added no salt, because of my concerns over the meat toughening further. I was parsimonious with ginger, as it is not good to one of my regular diners. About a half a teaspoon of galangale was used,

It took approximately 10 minutes for the almond milk to cook completely down, and the meat to heat fully through. I thought to add more almond milk, but tasting proved that there was no real need to do so.

We were both surprised by how tender the chicken was, The intense chicken flavor combined with the earthiness of the goat blended with the almond milk, and the galangale seemed to counteract any gamy flavors beautifully while allowing the richness to shine through.

It is a simple dish, in fact it reminded me a lot of the Tender Chickpeas recipe from a couple of years ago, which can be found at http://carbonadoes.com/2012/11/10/sent-sovi-chickpeas/

 

1 old hen or stewing chicken

1 neck of kid, lamb, or venison, about 3 lbs, bone on, whole or cut up.

1/2 gallon almond milk (if poaching and cooling), 2 c reserved for second cooking

1 tsp galangale

1/2 tsp ginger

A whole chicken will need 45 minutes to seethe, while a cut up chicken the same size could potentially cook in as little as 20 minutes.

place the chicken and the neck in a pot they fit somewhat snugly. Dust with spices, pour almond milk over.

Place pot on burner, seethe on low flame with a lid on. Take care to turn the meat a couple of times so it cooks evenly and does not stick.

Take care not to allow the meat to take color.

When the almond milk separates and the fat rises, check for doneness.

When done, turn off the heat and allow the meat to cool until it is comfortable to handle with your hands.

Remove the meat from the bones, cube somewhat coarsely. Be careful of shards, if you bought a cut up neck. They are tricky.

You can serve it now, warmed and in its broth, if it is sufficiently tender and to your liking.

If you feel the meat needs more time to become tender, place the cubed meat with the fresh almond milk and a fresh scattering of spices.

(Reserve the prior almond milk for a bukkenade or a blancmange. I used it for another bruet.)

Simmer the pot until the almond milk is mostly evaporated, but the meat is not completely dry. I chose to serve with a coarse bread, and a nice earthy root vegetable.

 

http://www.auxmaillesgodefroy.com/forme_of_cury

The final dish, heavy on the chicken, light on the vegetables.

Bukkenade is a great leftovers dish. I love leftovers dishes. Not everything needs to be a lot of fuss.

 Bukkenade. Take hennes or connynges or veel or othere flessh & hewe hem to gobettes. Waische it and sethe hit well. Grynde almaundes vnblaunched, and drawe hem vp with the broth; cast therinne raysouns of couraunce, sugur, powdour gynger, erbes ystewed in grees, oynouns and salt. If it is to thynne, alye it vp with flour of ryse or with other thyng, and colour it with safroun.

I made this dish using things on hand, though the greens were not leftover.

My garden gave me Rutabaga tops, Hyssop, Salad Burnet, Lovage, and Sage, as well as a few decently large Spring Onions.

herbed piled on a board waiting to be chopped.

Herbs

I sliced it all to chiffonade, and fried it with salt in chicken fat from the broth.

the board, the knife, the herbs ready to fry

Herbs ready to fry, sliced finely. I did not use all of the onion top

2 cups Leftover chicken, picked over, cubed.
1 c herbs and vegetables
1 Tbs chicken fat or olive oil
1 1/2 c Almond milk
1/2 c Chicken broth, if the almond milk was not made with it
1/4 c Currants
1 tsp sugar
1/4 tsp powdered ginger
1/2 c total fried greens (subrecipe)
1/2 tsp salt in total, no matter which step it came in from.
1 tsp rice flour, muddled in cold water, held aside.
1 pinch saffron, in water, if you wish, held aside

One small pot
One medium pan
1 knife, board
1 spatula
1 ladle

Rinse herbs and vegetables, slice them very finely.
Add to the pan with the oil, sautee until done.
Add the chicken, warm through.

In pot, place almond milk, and if not made with chicken originally, add broth.
Add currants, ginger, and sugar.

 

almond milk with currants and ginger

Almond milk with currants and ginger

When almond mixture is warm, add to the chicken mixture. Simmer until almond milk begins to thicken. Taste for salt. Add if needed.
Add saffron if you wish, it is just for color.

Chicken, vegetables, and almond milk together in the pan, beginning to cook together

Chicken, vegetables, and almond milk together in the pan, beginning to cook together

If you wish, add the rice slurry, and simmer for a further 5 minutes to allow the starch to cook.

Adding rice flour slurry to thicken. Otherwise fully cooked.

Adding rice flour slurry to thicken. Otherwise fully cooked.

Serve.

 

The sauce isn’t gloppy, it’s light, creamy, and nice. You might like more ginger, I am not a fan so I have a light hand with it.

 

This dish could easily be adapted to a Vegetables with Chicken dish by changing the proportions and types of vegetables.

Bukkenade can also be made into  a group service dish by layering the greens with chicken, pouring the sauce over, and baking, much like a spinach souffle.

It could also be adapted to a Vegetables with Chicken dish by changing proportions.

I have been asked to make this dish again.

 

 

Hieatt, C. B. (1985). Curye on Inglysch: English culinary manuscripts of the 14. century : (including the Forme of Cury). London [u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press.

Curye on Inglisch 38

I don’t like rice.

I’ll eat it, but I won’t go out of my way for it. It just isn’t my thing.

One of the recipes that seems to find its way into more cookbooks than any other is blancmange. Rice. This does not  inspire excitement.

However, it’s as  economical as it is pervasive, using broth, almonds, rice, and leftover chicken picked off of the bones, or when made especially for a particular diner, only a little of the breast of a capon.

As much as I don’t love rice, it would be disingenious to avoid making this dish.

I had lots of reference sources available. Some call for verjus, others for pikefish, and a large variety of spices.

I used this iteration from Curye on Inglisch.

38 Blank maunger. Take capouns and seeth them, thenne take hem vp; take almaundes blaunched, grynd hem &alay hem vp with the same broth. Cast the mylk in a pot. Waisshe rys and do thereto, and lat it seeth; thane take the brawn of the capouns, teese it small and do therto. Take white grece, sugur and salt, and cast therinne. Lat it seeth; thenne messe it forth and florissh ot with aneys in confyt, red other whyt, and with almaundes fryed in oyle, and serue it forth. (p106)

 

  • Take capons and seethe them-poach a chicken and make some broth.
  • Make almond milk using that broth.
  • Simmer rice in the chicken-almond milk
  • Add shredded chicken. Specifically “teased”, not diced.
  • Add “white grece”
  • sugar and salt, and let it seethe.
  • Serve with a garnish of anise comfits and toasted almonds.

 

INGREDIENTS

  • 16 ounces raw almonds, soaked overnight, peeled.
  • 1 quart of chicken broth, warmed
  • ¼ c chicken fat from the broth
  • 1 cup cooked chicken, shredded
  • 1 cup rice, soaked
  • ½ TBS salt
  • 1 TBS sugar

the assembled ingredients for the dish; chicken broth, peeled almonds, rice, chicken, sugar, salt

GEAR

basin to soak almonds

processor for almond milk

strainer for almond milk

pot to cook in (or rice cooker)

spatula

HOW TO

Set aside a dozen almonds for garnish.

Place the rest of the almonds in a processor or blender. Whiz til they are meal.

Add chicken broth, whiz to commingle well.

Strain and press solids,  set them aside for a future dish.

 

a food processor with almond milk being made with chicken stock.

There is not enough sp`the almond milk is no longer liquid, and risks burningace in this processor for the almond milk to be properly made, it must be transferred to a larger vessel to be completed.

  • Start by putting a couple of teaspoons of chicken fat into the cooking pot, and toast the almonds. Set them aside. Don’t wipe out the pot.
  • Place rice in the same pot, add almond milk. Watch the pot closely, as almond milk does not behave quite like water, and will cook out at a different rate. If your almond milk is depleted before your rice is done, supplement with broth, or if you are out of that as well, use water.
  • When the rice is done (or if you are clever, when the rice cooker dings) fold in the chicken and spices, and add chicken fat a tablespoon at a time until you are pleased with the mouthfeel and texture. Don’t skip the chicken fat step.
  • Place in a bowl or on a plate, garnish with toasted almonds, and serve. If you wish to use anise comfits, decorate with them as well.

NOTES

Every time I make a chicken, I save the bones to make broth.  I put the prior broth in a pot, warm it up, and add the bones. It gets richer, denser, and more flavorful every time. This dish would have been pretty insipid without the intensity of the broth, as it was the primary source of flavor.

I have read a lot of conflicting opinions on what rice was most likely used historically. I chose to use Arborio which I had on hand.

Skinning a pound of almonds took two hours. It’s fussy.

I put the almond and chicken mixture into a pot to warm together, because the processor could not hold enough liquid to make the almond milk. It worked out pretty well, as straining the almond milk is potentially messy.

I added my salt and sugar directly to the chicken meat in order to ensure the seasonings being evenly distributed. There’s more of a risk of over or under seasoning using this method.

The pot I used is not the best one for a dish like this. The squared off bottom corners invited sticking and burning, so I wound up stirring constantly. This worked out in my favor, as it wound up being accidental risotto.

Honestly, it was a good dish. I did not enjoy it, but only because I am still not partial to rice.
I was asked to serve it again, and I will. If haste is an issue, I may use both commercial almond milk and strong broth to create the depth of flavor, which would make this a 30 minute dish. It was a success.

If you wish to explore the very wide world of Medieval blancmanges, check out this link to the Medieval Cookery site; it’s a list of several. You are certain to find a type there that will work for you.

http://www.medievalcookery.com/search/display.html?fourm:36

 

Hieatt, C. B. (1985). Curye on Inglysch: English culinary manuscripts of the fourteenth century, including the “Forme of cury. London ; New York ; Toronto: Oxford university press

 

Mustards!

	I took all of the books I could find, and used all of the mustard recipes 
I could within them.

	If I missed some, please mention it so I can go back.

	Some books didn't have any, and some were harder to find or identify than others.
a stack of several books, two jars of mustard seed, several vinegars.

This project took some preparation,
and was a lot of fun.

	My first order of business was to set basic concepts and ground rules for the project. 
With the plan being to use a dozen mason jars, I decided to
  • use whole mustard wherever I could, and grind it. stick with yellow mustard for flavor
  • limit myself to one ounce of seed per jar where possible,
  • not use salt unless called for specifically (it never was)
  • comparison unless brown were specified
  • start them all at the same time, rather than trying to get them to finish at the same time

On to the books.
Guter Spise had mustard as an ingredient, but not as a result.

NeapolitanRecipe 32; 
Not a "mustard," but it is called one.
 Not being a condiment, this will happen another day.

	Recipe 121: Mustard seed soaked in wine or must. 
The description is what passes for scathing, the author seems to have considered this a
 required waste of ink.
 As for flavor, it's simply an acidic whole-grain mustard. 
Grinding the seed, allowing it to mature for some months in a cool room,
 and serving with a cheese course make perfect sense to my palate.

	Recipe 122: Start by steeping the seeds, 
then blend with blanched almonds and must syrup or verjus, then strain, thicken, and add spices if so desired.
  	In steeping, the seeds doubled in size and absorbed about 150% of their dry weight in water.
 Aroma is cheeselike, but it is quite mellow, and would be lovely with cheese, 
dried fruit, or with poultry. It's honestly a lot more pleasant than expected.
        I made the “must” variant, using must from a local vinegar shop.

	Recipe 123: balled mustard for trips. First soak the seeds 
(again, 150% absorption rate) then grind with raisins and spices, form into a ball, and dehydrate on a board. 
This is to be used on the road. To use it, grate it into "verjus or must or wine or vinegar."
	A mortar and pestle was the only functional tool for this, as the spice/coffee grinder 
could not get to the seeds. The wet mustard mixture was too sticky to bounce around enough to get smacked up.
	I added the cinnamon and raisins, and crushed the mustard bit by bit until the
 raisins were no longer visible. Then I rolled the mass into little balls and allowed them to dry in a warm drafty spot for two days.

Libellus de arte coquinaria;P 87, Recipe 8 Another Sauce;
 I passed on this one, as it was too similar to a couple of others and I am low on seeds.

	P. 88, Recipe 9 Another One; This one is fun. It calls for the seeds to be
 ground with honey, cinnamon, and anise. The honey really helped in the mortar and pestle, it kept the little seeds from bouncing 
around so much.  Smells great. I added an ounce of plain red wine which has vinegared on the counter, which it
 absorbed quickly. Being done and marked as being "good for three months," I will check and add more vinegar 
if needed.
 Flavorwise a week later, the mustard strength is tempered by cinnamon, not as sharp, has a backbite. 
Good for smoked meats, ham. It's deep dark and earthy, yet refined.

Goodman of ParisP 188 Sauces Not Boiled; There are two listed in
 one notation, one for making mustard to be used at once, the other for when you have time to allow it to mature.
 I chose to work with the "At Leisure" variety.  It very simply calls for the seeds to be soaked in vinegar overnight,
 ground, then have any spices left from making spiced wine added. Not only is this frugal, it seems it
 would add lovely complementary flavor. 

	P 196 has the recipe for hippocras, which gives proportions of
 spices to be added. I do not use ginger, and have no galangale, so I used the cinnamon, grain of paradise, and nutmegs, 
soaked them in wine overnight as well to emulate the "used and discarded" bit, and folded them in the next day.
 The blend being very tight (dry), I added some of the seasoned wine as well.  On tasting, it was a bit generic and acidic,
 though the spices did add some depth.

	P 195; About halfway down this page of preserving foods is a mustard recipe as a 
sub-recipe for preserving root vegetables.
 It starts by asking for "for every 500 nuts", which gave me a key for weights and measures.
I worked out that 500 almonds is just about 16 ounces, and that the measure in use at the time was nominally 12 ounces.
 This made working out the measures of spices far easier.
	I added the anise, coriander, and caraway, but have no fennel seed.  All of this went into a processor,
 which didn't help much. When I added the vinegar it started to work, and eventually I got something smoother.
 It absorbed almost all of the liquid right away.
	There is a note to add horseradish at the end of this recipe, I am not yet decided 
whether I will.
 It appeard to be to be a note to add this to the full recipe for preserving root vegetables, 
rather than to the subrecipe for the mustard portion. (a question mark)
	On tasting, we agreed that this is much better as an ingredient than a separate sauce, 
it wanted and lacked the depth and lushness of the other items involved in making a proper compost.
 I will make it again when I have root vegetables to preserve, and judge it again.

Sent Sovip 81 Recipe XIX; I was tired of the mortar and pestle, 
and the processor isn't good at little seeds. I tried a sesame-seed mill, it nominally worked.
 At least it hulled the seeds, if not actually breaking them down to powder.
 	I cracked the seeds and poured hot water over them. Then I strained them and did it again. 
I could not grind the seeds (I am done in), but did fold in the same weight chicken broth as dry mustard seeds. 
I added a tenth part honey, as those recipes with proportions of sweetener seem to work out to 1:10 sweetener:mustard by dry weight.
	Being blanched and not having vinegar at all, I am quite curious as to how this one will work out. 

	On tasting, we agree that this was a waste of mustard seeds. Flavorless and lacking in any character, 
we kind of felt let down.
 	There is a comment in Sent Sovi on making French mustard just as there is in Neapolitan, 
but not only does the author reserve personal opinion, there is a suggestion to add fruit syrup.
I let that one pass.
 
English Housewife
         mentions mustards, but the tastiest looking one is meant as a poultice for sciatica.
 (not to imply that it looked tasty!)
Cury on Inglisch 
	p 131 recipe 150 Lumbard Mustard; Finding this one is hard. 
I find this book to the the most frustrating of all of them to hunt through, it's a combination of the organisation and the fonts.
 	Grind the seeds, I whacked them with a meat-flattener, then switched to a rolling pin. 
Eventually I had to admit defeat, half of the mustard weight is powdered. I added the honey, the wine and the vinegar, 
and must thin it with wine at use.  HOT! Horseradishy. Awesome for sausages, smoked meats, or ham, 
it has all of the characteristics we desire from a spicy mustard. 

Martino; The Art of Cooking
	P 135: Just as scathing as Neapolitan's comment,
 this one simply remarks on French mustard "It is merely thinned with bitter or sodden wine. This is French mustard- for what it's worth."
 ooh, spiteful!

	The recipe on 78 for "Red or Violet mustard" is for the plant, not the seeds, and not a condiment but a dish.

 Two weeks later, I went back to check on them all.
several
 pint canning jars of different mustards, all labeled.

keeping things orderly

	Neapolitan Recipe 121 About the same; this would be a fine base for a mustard,
 but it isn't by any means usable in this state.

	Neapolitan Recipe 122 Fermented and grey, I think this was best at three days.
 I stand by my suggestion for service with a cheese plate with dried fruit.

	Neapolitan Recipe 123
	Libellus de arte coquinaria;  P 88 Still pleasant,
 but nothing to write home about. This did not live up to expectations, sadly.

	Goodman of Paris P 188 Way past prime, unfortunately. 
I think a week in the fridge is all it is good for. It is uninteresting, 
particularly compared to how rich and pleasant some of the others are.
 Goodman of Paris P 195 It got funky (musty smelling.) I will make this in the fall when I have root veg out of the garden.

	Sent Sovi p 81 About the same, but still less than interesting. 
Thin and plain.

	Cury on Inglisch p 131 Has lost nothing of it's charm. 
It is a good and interesting option. We used it up first.
 REVISITING NEAPOLITAN 123
 There were some interesting points on this one.
From one ounce of mustard seed I have two ounces of completed mustard balls. They are quite light and airy from the hulls
 of the mustard being so coarse.
 They have a lovely aroma, and look quite sensibly portable.
superball-sized balls drying on a paper towels
They took about two days to dry properly
 After drying on the counter for several days, I decided to test a couple of variables.

 I placed three balls each in separate jars, and covered each with 10x its weight in liquid.
 One was steeped in red wine, one in red wine vinegar, and one in verjus. 

 12 hours later, I looked in on them, they had not dissolved, but had soaked up some liquid.

 The Vinegar one I mashed with all it's liquid, it was far too runny.
 The Verjus, I poured off all but a volume equivalent to the still-whole ball, and mashed. Still too runny, 
though a useful consistency.
 The plain wine, I poured off all of the liquid, and mashed just the ball. It was a slight bit thick, very spreadable. 

 My suggestion is to soak with enough liquid to cover, separate, mash, and add back the used soaking liquid as 
needed for the consistency you prefer.

 Flavors and aromas were slightly different, though the character was similar enough between the three to be functionally interchangeable. 

 The wine had the most heat and sweetness, the verjus was sharpest, and the vinegar was pretty well balanced
 between the two.
A half hour later, the sweetness lingers.